We have been examining the components of culture. The non-material aspects of culture are often the most important but we are often unaware of them.
One type of non-material culture is symbolic culture, or gestures and language.
Gestures are important to understanding and communicating within a culture. Understanding a culture's gestures can also help us avoid ethnocentrism and culture shock. Here is a guide for international business travelers to help them understand the impact gestures can have on their interaction with other cultures. Here is a link to a list of some single hand gestures from around the world.
Another important aspect of symbolic culture is Language. first studied by Saphir and Whorf. Sapir-Whorf has been critically contested in recent years, but the NY Times ran a story about how there is still some merit to the idea of language affecting our thoughts. See that article here. Also, see this post about politics and how the use of English frames every debate especially the debate over gun violence. Here is a book that highlights untranslatable words from around the world.
Language is important too as it affects how we think. When we think about something, we are using language inside of our heads so if we use certain words or do not have certain words, it may affect how think about things especially how we categorize something. Here are 11 words that have no translation. When bilingual students think about some ideas they have to shift from one language to another because sometimes it is easier to think about something or express an idea in one language because there are not proper words to describe it in another.
Here (see page 43 of this doc) is a lesson from Carol Mukhopadhyay on classifying in other cultures. For each of the following sets, choose the item that does not belong:
Also, here is a study explaining that with out language, numbers do not make sense.